Monitor Linux Server With Nagios Core Using SNMP

Nagios is the leader and industry standard in enterprise-class monitoring solutions. Nagios provides two monitoring tools Nagios Core and Nagios XI.

Nagios Core is a free and open source tool that allows you to monitor your entire IT infrastructure to ensure hosts, services and applications are functioning properly. For more information, you can visit the website of Nagios. This article is intended for use by Nagios Administrators who wish to monitor Linux servers with Nagios Core using the linux SNMP.

SNMP stands for simple network management protocol. It is a way that servers can share information about their current state, and also a channel through which an administer can modify pre-defined values. While the protocol itself is very simple, the structure of programs that implement SNMP can be very complex.

If you still didn’t install Nagios Core , check the following articles.

In this article we will show you how to install and configure SNMP in the remote server and how to add the host to Nagios Core.

Installing and Configuring SNMP Agent On The Remote Linux Machine

Install and Configure SNMP  on Ubuntu 14.04/14.10

We can begin to explore how SNMP can be implemented on a system by installing the SNMP agent on some Ubuntu systems.

1- Install SNMPd agent on Ubuntu Server

Type the following command as root, enter:

apt-get update && apt-get install snmpd

2- SNMPd Configuration

The snmpd daemon must be configured to work with Cacti. The configuration file is located at “/etc/snmp/snmpd.conf“. Make sure you are editing the snmpd.conf file and not the snmp.conf file.

To get started, on our agent computer, we need to open the daemon’s configuration file with sudo privileges:

sudo nano /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf

First, we need to change the agentAddress directive. Currently, it is set to only allow connections originating from the local computer. We need to comment out the current line, and uncomment the line underneath, which allows all connections

#  Listen for connections from the local system only
#agentAddress  udp:127.0.0.1:161
#  Listen for connections on all interfaces (both IPv4 *and* IPv6)
agentAddress udp:161,udp6:[::1]:161
Add view
view   all         included   .1                80
ACCESS CONTROL

Change the following line:

rocommunity public  default    -V systemonly

To:

rocommunity test1252serc default    -V all

The snmp community is test1252serc.

SYSTEM INFORMATION

You can add the physical location of your server and a contact email. These may be helpful for distinguishing machines if you are monitoring a large number of cloud servers.

sysLocation    Your System Location
sysContact     contact@email.com    

After you are done with your modifications, save the file, exit and restart the snmpd service.

$sudo service snmpd restart

Install and Configure SNMP on Centos

1- Install SNMP and SNMP Utilities

Installing SNMP and some optional SNMP utilities is as simple as running one command:

yum -y install net-snmp net-snmp-utils

2- Add a Basic Configuration for SNMP

Now, let’s take the default SNMP configuration file, /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf and move it to an alternate location,/etc/snmp/snmpd.conf.orig.

mv /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf.orig

And now we’ll create a new /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf:

vim /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf
Insert the following text into the new /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf
# Map 'tes90w90t' community to the 'AllUser'
#       sec.name        source          community
com2sec AllUser         default         tes90w90t

# Map 'ConfigUser' to 'ConfigGroup' for SNMP Version 2c
# Map 'AllUser' to 'AllGroup' for SNMP Version 2c
#                       sec.model       sec.name
group   AllGroup        v2c             AllUser

# Define 'SystemView', which includes everything under .1.3.6.1.2.1.1 (or .1.3.6.1.2.1.25.1)
# Define 'AllView', which includes everything under .1
#                       incl/excl       subtree
view    SystemView      included        .1.3.6.1.2.1.1
view    SystemView      included        .1.3.6.1.2.1.25.1.1
view    AllView         included        .1

# Give 'ConfigGroup' read access to objects in the view 'SystemView'
# Give 'AllGroup' read access to objects in the view 'AllView'
#                       context model   level   prefix  read            write   notify
access  AllGroup        ""      any     noauth  exact   AllView         none    none

The above text is noted with basic information on the function of each configuration line. In short, we’re creating this scenarios for the polling

AllUser is assigned to AllGroup and may only use SNMP security model 2c , AllGroup can use the AllView .

AllView is assigned to the entire OID tree, and all of this is referenced in an SNMP poll by the secret, and uniquecommunity string tes90w90t.

Exit vim, and restart the SNMP service to reload the new configuration file:
service snmpd restart

Configure SNMP to start when the server boots:

chkconfig snmpd on

3- Test the SNMP Configuration

If you have a firewall configured, ensure that you have UDP port 161 open to your SNMP lookup server.

On your SNMP lookup server, you can do the following to perform a quick SNMP test to ensure that it’s working.

snmpwalk -v 2c -c tes90w90wer -O e 127.0.0.1 

you should get an output like below :

SNMPv2-MIB::sysDescr.0 = STRING: Linux 2.6.18-194.11.4.el5xen #1 SMP Tue 
SNMPv2-MIB::sysObjectID.0 = OID: NET-SNMP-MIB::netSnmpAgentOIDs.10
DISMAN-EVENT-MIB::sysUpTimeInstance = Timeticks: (242211) 0:40:22.11
SNMPv2-MIB::sysContact.0 = STRING: [email protected]
SNMPv2-MIB::sysName.0 = STRING: 
SNMPv2-MIB::sysLocation.0 = STRING: Unknown
SNMPv2-MIB::sysORLastChange.0 = Timeticks: (2) 0:00:00.02
SNMPv2-MIB::sysORID.1 = OID: SNMPv2-MIB::snmpMIB
SNMPv2-MIB::sysORID.2 = OID: TCP-MIB::tcpMIB
SNMPv2-MIB::sysORID.3 = OID: IP-MIB::ip
SNMPv2-MIB::sysORID.4 = OID: UDP-MIB::udpMIB
SNMPv2-MIB::sysORID.5 = OID: SNMP-VIEW-BASED-ACM-MIB::vacmBasicGroup
SNMPv2-MIB::sysORID.6 = OID: SNMP-FRAMEWORK-MIB::snmpFrameworkMIBCompliance
SNMPv2-MIB::sysORID.7 = OID: SNMP-MPD-MIB::snmpMPDCompliance
SNMPv2-MIB::sysORID.8 = OID: SNMP-USER-BASED-SM-MIB::usmMIBCompliance

Configure Nagios To Monitor The Linux Host

Before you start configuring nagios , Here are some useful OID’s on Linux:

Network Interface Statistics
List NIC names: .1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.2 
Get Bytes IN: .1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.10
Get Bytes IN for NIC 4: .1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.10.4
Get Bytes OUT: .1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.16
Get Bytes OUT for NIC 4: .1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.16.4
Load
1 minute Load: .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.10.1.3.1
5 minute Load: .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.10.1.3.2
15 minute Load: .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.10.1.3.3
CPU times
percentage of user CPU time: .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.11.9.0
raw user cpu time: .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.11.50.0
percentages of system CPU time: .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.11.10.0
raw system cpu time: .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.11.52.0
percentages of idle CPU time: .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.11.11.0
raw idle cpu time: .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.11.53.0
raw nice cpu time: .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.11.51.0
Memory Statistics
Total Swap Size: .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.4.3.0
Available Swap Space: .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.4.4.0
Total RAM in machine: .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.4.5.0
Total RAM used: .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.4.6.0
Total RAM Free: .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.4.11.0
Total RAM Shared: .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.4.13.0
Total RAM Buffered: .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.4.14.0
Total Cached Memory: .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.4.15.0
Disk Statistics
Path where the disk is mounted: .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.9.1.2.1
Path of the device for the partition: .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.9.1.3.1
Total size of the disk/partion (kBytes): .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.9.1.6.1
Available space on the disk: .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.9.1.7.1
Used space on the disk: .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.9.1.8.1
Percentage of space used on disk: .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.9.1.9.1
Percentage of inodes used on disk: .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.9.1.10.1
System Uptime OID’s
 .1.3.6.1.2.1.1.3.0

Now make sure your nagios is able to excute snmp on remote Linux system. Try to execute following command. In this example 192.168.5.178 is the ip address of the remote host.

snmpwalk -v 1 -c tes90w90wer 192.168.5.178 .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.9.1.7.1
UCD-SNMP-MIB::dskAvail.1 = INTEGER: 110247880

Then add host entry for each remote box you will monitor. This example is using the linux­server template, be sure to
check that template out to verify the settings are the ones you want to use.

Edit the hosts.cfg file and add the default host template name and define remote hosts as shown below

nano /usr/local/nagios/etc/hosts.cfg
define host{ 
 use linux­server
 host_name class 
 alias Base 
 address 192.168.5.178 
 }

The last step is the configure services. Each service you want to monitor on the remote host must be entered individually.The check_nrpe command is used to access the remote server and then execute the Nagios plugin that is on the remote server and retrieve the information.

Now open services.cfg file add the following services to be monitored.

define service{
        use                     generic-service
        host_name               class 
        service_description     CPU Load
        check_command           check_snmp!tes90w90wer!1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.2! 
        }

Next, verify Nagios Configuration files for any errors.

/usr/local/nagios/bin/nagios -v /usr/local/nagios/etc/nagios.cfg
Total Warnings: 0
Total Errors:   0

Finally, restart Nagios.

service nagios restart

Log into the web interface via : http://[SERVER_IP]/nagios , enter your login information and check for new Linux hosts added in nagios core service.

nagios

That’s all.

Congratulations! Enjoy your Monitoring platform Nagios Core.