Setup Backup Server Using rsnapshot

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rsnapshot is a filsystem snapshot utility written in Perl. It is a remote backup utility used to take single or multiple backup of filesystems from local or remote systems using rsync.

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In this tutorial, my scenario will be as follows:

My local system (Backup server) is Ubuntu 13.04 desktop with IP address 192.168.1.100/24 and remote system is CentOS 6.x server with IP address 192.168.1.200/24.

My Root (Main) backup directory: /home/backup (on Ubuntu desktop)

My local system backup directory: /home/backup/local (on Ubuntu desktop)

My remote system backup directory: /home/backup/remote (on Ubuntu Desktop)

 

Install rsnapshot and rsync on Backup server

As I mentioned, my backup server is Ubuntu 13.04 desktop. So let us install rsync and rsnapshot packages.

On Ubuntu:

sk@sk:~$ sudo apt-get install rsnapshot rsync

On CentOS:

rsnapshot will not be found in the official repository. So add the EPEL repository to install rsnapshot.

To install EPEL repository enter the following command:

[root@server ~]# rpm -ivh http://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/6/i386/epel-release-6-8.noarch.rpm

Now install rsnapshot and rsync:

[root@server ~]# yum install rsync rsnapshot -y

Create backup directories on Backup server:

sk@sk:~$ sudo mkdir /home/backup
sk@sk:~$ sudo mkdir /home/backup/local
sk@sk:~$ sudo mkdir /home/backup/remote

Configure password less SSH login for Remote systems

In order to take remote backup, you need to setup password less SSH login for your remote systems:

sk@sk:~$ ssh-keygen -t rsa
 Generating public/private rsa key pair.
 Enter file in which to save the key (/home/sk/.ssh/id_rsa):
 Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase):
 Enter same passphrase again:
 Your identification has been saved in /home/sk/.ssh/id_rsa.
 Your public key has been saved in /home/sk/.ssh/id_rsa.pub.
 The key fingerprint is:
 b7:01:ae:c9:2d:f8:af:20:e1:da:65:fc:70:e2:7b:3f sk@sk
 The key's randomart image is:
 +--[ RSA 2048]----+
 |                 |
 |                 |
 |        .        |
 |       . .       |
 |  .     S o      |
 | . o o + . o     |
 |  o O * . .      |
 | o = B..E        |
 |. . oo++o.       |
 +-----------------+

Copy the id_rsa.pub key file to remote systems:

sk@sk:~$ ssh-copy-id -i /home/sk/.ssh/id_rsa.pub root@192.168.1.200
root@192.168.1.200's password:
Now try logging into the machine, with "ssh 'root@192.168.1.200'", and check in:

~/.ssh/authorized_keys

to make sure we haven't added extra keys that you weren't expecting.

Now you can login to server using ssh without password.

Configure rsnapshot

Before proceed further, you need to know important configuration rules.

1. All directories in the config files should be end up with a slash (/). i.e You should use /home/ instead of /home.

2. Use TAB key between elements. DON’T hit Space bar.

Setup Main backup directory:

Open /etc/rsnapshot.conf file. Set main backup root directory. And also uncomment the line cmd_ssh to allow remote backups over ssh:

sk@sk:~$ sudo vi /etc/rsnapshot.conf

[...]

# All snapshots will be stored under this root directory.
#
snapshot_root   /home/backup/

[...]

# Uncomment this to enable remote ssh backups over rsync.
#
cmd_ssh /usr/bin/ssh

[...]

Don’t forget to hit TAB key between snapshot_root and your backup directory. All backups will be stored under this root directory.

Define backup intervals:

sk@sk:~$ sudo vi /etc/rsnapshot.conf

[...]

#########################################
 #           BACKUP INTERVALS            #
 # Must be unique and in ascending order #
 # i.e. hourly, daily, weekly, etc.      #
 #########################################

retain          hourly  6
retain          daily   7
retain          weekly  4
[...]

This will take backup every six hours on a day. Define your own schedule as per your requirements.

Define local system backup directories:

sk@sk:~$ sudo vi /etc/rsnapshot.conf

[...]
###############################
 ### BACKUP POINTS / SCRIPTS ###
 ###############################

# LOCALHOST
 backup  /home/  local/
 backup  /etc/   local/
 backup  /usr/local/     local/
 [...]

We have already defined the rsnapshot root directory. So you don’t have to specify the full path i.e /home/backup/local. Enter the directory path that you want to make backup.

Define Remote system backup directories:

sk@sk:~$ sudo vi /etc/rsnapshot.conf
[...]

###############################
### BACKUP POINTS / SCRIPTS ###
###############################

[...]
# REMOTEHOST
backup  root@192.168.1.200:/home/       remote/ 
[...]

We have already defined the rsnapshot root directory. So you don’t have to specify the full path i.e /home/backup/remote.

In the above example, I take the backup of my remote system /home directory.

Check rsnapshot for any configuration errors

Enter the following command to test for any configuration errors:

sk@sk:~$ rsnapshot configtest
Syntax OK

Test backups

Now run the hourly basis backup to test the configuration:

sk@sk:~$ sudo rsnapshot hourly

It will take a while depending upon your backup size:

Automate backup jobs using Cron

Open the cron job file /etc/cron.d/rsnapshot and uncomment the lines:

sk@sk:~$ sudo vi /etc/cron.d/rsnapshot

# This is a sample cron file for rsnapshot.
 # The values used correspond to the examples in /etc/rsnapshot.conf.
 # There you can also set the backup points and many other things.
 #
 # To activate this cron file you have to uncomment the lines below.
 # Feel free to adapt it to your needs.

0 */4          * * *           root    /usr/bin/rsnapshot hourly
30 3   * * *           root    /usr/bin/rsnapshot daily
0  3   * * 1           root    /usr/bin/rsnapshot weekly
30 2   1 * *           root    /usr/bin/rsnapshot monthly

Verify backup files

To see the backup files, go to the directory /home/backup and list the contents:

sk@sk:~$ sudo ls -l /home/backup/
total 12
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 Jun 19 13:22 hourly.0
drwxrwxrwx 2 root root 4096 Jun 19 12:13 local
drwxrwxrwx 2 root root 4096 Jun 19 12:13 remote

Restore Backups

Suppose if you want to restore a backup of local system, navigate to root backup directory. Copy the backup files/directories you want.

Restore backup to local system:

sk@sk:~$ cd /home/backup/
sk@sk:/home/backup$ ls -l
total 12
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 Jun 19 13:22 hourly.0
drwxrwxrwx 2 root root 4096 Jun 19 12:13 local
drwxrwxrwx 2 root root 4096 Jun 19 12:13 remote

Here I copy the Pictures folder from my root backup directory to /home/sk/myfiles directory of local system:

sk@sk:/home/backup$ sudo cp -r hourly.0/local/home/sk/Pictures/ /home/sk/myfiles/

Verify the backup file(s) exist:

sk@sk:/home/backup$ ls -l /home/sk/myfiles/
total 4
drwx------ 2 sk sk 4096 Jun 19 13:43 Pictures

Restore backup to remote system:

sk@sk:/home/backup$ sudo scp -r hourly.0/local/home/sk/Pictures/ root@192.168.1.200:/root/

Verify the backup file(s) exist:

[root@server ~]# ls
anaconda-ks.cfg  install.log  install.log.syslog  Pictures

As you seen in the above output my local (ubuntu) files are restored/copied to remote (centos) system.

That’s it. For more information about rsnapshot configuration options refer the official documentation.

For questions please refer to our Q/A forum at : http://ask.unixmen.com/

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